STATE OF THE WORLD™S CITIES 2008/2009Press
ReleaseAmerican cities as unequal as African and Latin American cities according to UN-HABITAT™s new State of the World™s Cities Report 2008/9: Harmonious CitiesMajor cities in the United States, such as Atlanta, New Orleans, Washington D.C., Miami, and New York, have the highest levelsof inequality in the country, similar to those of Abidjan, Nairobi, Buenos Aires, and Santiago. At the other end of the world,Beijing is considered to be the most equal city in the world while, on average, the most egalitarian cities in the world are
located in Western Europe.
Bettelnde alte kranke Frau in Lateinamerikas reichster Großstadt Sao Paulo, mit über 2000 Slums. “Fortschrittliche Regierungspolitik”.
Slum-Diktatur und UN-Habitat 5: http://www.hart-brasilientexte.de/2010/01/07/weiter-folter-in-brasilien-lokale-militardiktatur-des-organisierten-verbrechens-uber-slums-unter-lula-regierung-laut-brasilianischem-grunen-politiker-alfredo-sirkis-peter-scholl-latour-uber-bra/
These are some of the startling findings of the new UN-HABITAT report on the State of the World™s Cities 2008/9: HarmoniousCities. As Ban Ki-moon the Secretary-General of the United Nations points out in his foreword to the report, ”The data andanalysis contained in this report are intended to improve our understanding of how cities function and what we, as a globalcommunity, can do to increase their liveability and unity.Aimed at policymakers and planners and all those concerned with the welfare of a rapidly urbanizing world, the report breaksnew ground by taking the Gini coefficient , normally used to measure inequality at the national level, and using it to measureinequality at the city level.Basing their research on such economic statistics, the authors find that though the cities in the United States of America haverelatively lower levels of poverty than many other cities in the developed world, their levels of income inequality are quite
high, and have risen above the international alert line of 0.4.
http://www.hart-brasilientexte.de/2010/03/19/soziale-ungleichheit-unter-lula-laut-uno-sind-brasilia-fortaleza-belo-horizonte-und-goiania-unter-den-schluslichtern-der-neuen-welt-statistik/According to the report, in Canada and the United States, one of the most important factors determining levels of inequalityis race. In western New York State, for instance, nearly 40 per cent of the black, Hispanic, and mixed-race households earnedless than US $15,000 in 1999, compared with 15 per cent of non-Hispanic white households. The life expectancy of AfricanAmericans in the United States is about the same as that of people living in China and some states of India, despite the factthat the United States is far richer than the other two countries.At the global level, the report finds that, on average, the most egalitarian cities in the world are located in Western Europe.In the developed world, specifically European countries, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Slovenia, exhibit relativelylow levels of inequality (Gini coefficient below 0.25, the lowest in the world). Inequalities are also low in Austria, Belgium,France, Germany, Luxemburg, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, where the Gini coefficients range from between 0.25 and0.3. Low levels of inequality reflect the performance of national and regional economies in these countries and the regulatory,distributive and redistributive capacity of the national and local welfare states.Analysing the rate of urban inequality in the developing world, the report finds that the cities of Asia are the most equal: theurban Gini coefficient of Asian cities is 0.39, slightly below the unacceptable inequality threshold of 0.4. However, there aresignificant income distribution differences among cities, even within the same country, which shows that national aggregatesare not necessarily reflected at the local level.For instance, Beijing, the capital of China, is the most equal city in Asia; its Gini coefficient is not only the lowest among Asiancities, but is the lowest in the world (0.22), whereas Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has the highestGini coefficient among all Asian cities, and a relatively high value by international standards (0.53).
SOWC/08/PR1This is a UN-HABITAT Feature/Backgrounder, please feel free to publish or quote from this article provided UN-HABITAT is given credit. Suitable photographs are available onour website. For further information, please contact: For more information, please contact:Spokesperson & Head, Press & Media Relations Unit, or Media Liaison, Tel: Â (254Â 20)Â 762Â 3153Â (254Â 20)Â 762Â 3153 ; 762 3151; Fax: (254 20) 762 4060: E-mail: email@example.com; Website: www.unhabitat.org.The report also marshals evidence to show that India is undergoing an inequality trend somewhat similar to that of Chinaas a result of economic liberalization and globalization. All of these changes in the occupational structure of the country areaffecting levels of inequality. In 2002, for instance, the income gain of the richest 10 per cent of the population was about 4times higher than the gain of the poorest 10 per cent.Focusing its attention on Latin America and the Caribbean, the report finds that the Gini coefficients in urban areas andselected cities in the region are among the highest in the world. For example, in Brazil, unemployment rose from 4.3 per centin 1990 to 12.3 per cent in 2003, and average wages of employees in the formal industrial sector fell by 4.3 per cent in 2003.Unemployment and declining wages in urban areas have polarized income distribution in urban areas. For this and otherhistorical reasons, Brazilian cities today have the greatest disparities in income distribution in the world.It comes as no surprise that cities in Sub-Saharan African have the highest levels of urban poverty in the world. Although ruralpoverty is pervasive in the region, more than 50 per cent of the urban population in the poorest countries lives below thepoverty line. Though Freetown in Sierra Leone, Dire Dawa in Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania are among the most equalcities in sub-Saharan Africa, with Gini coefficients of 0.32, 0.39 and 0.36, respectively, the Gini coefficient in urban Kenya rosefrom 0.47 in the 1980s to 0.575 in the 1990s.In South African and Namibian cities, inequalities are most pronounced and extraordinarily high, despite the dismantling ofapartheid in the early 1990s. In fact, urban inequalities in these two countries are even higher than those of Latin Americancities. The average Gini coefficient for South African cities is 0.73, while that of Namibian cities is 0.62, compared to the averageof 0.5 urban Latin America. Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, also stands out as a city with high levels of consumptioninequality, with a Gini coefficient of 0.52.Concerned about the increasing levels of urban inequality, in her introduction, Anna Tibaijuka, Executive Director of UN-HABITAT, calls for enlightened and committed political leadership combined with effective urban planning, governance andmanagement. She concludes by emphasizing the need to promote equity and sustainability in order to build harmoniouscities. 1 The Gini coefficient is is the most widely used measure to determine the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption among individuals orhouseholds deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini coefficient of 0 indicates perfect equality; Whereas a Gini coefficient of 1 indicates perfectinequality.Â
“Capitalismo selvagem” - Systemkritiker und Priester Xavier Paolillo in Vitoria, Espirito Santo.
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