Klaus Hart Brasilientexte

Aktuelle Berichte aus Brasilien – Politik, Kultur und Naturschutz

“The Art of Unlearning” – Frei Betto, Brasiliens wichtigster Befreiungstheologe. “Neoliberalismo e cultura”. “Neoliberalism and culture”. “Bolsa familia é eleitoreiro”.

A young doctor who was interested in becoming a friar arrived at the convent door. The prior arranged for him to speak to the master of novices.

“My dear doctor” said the master “the prior has asked me to give you this list of questions. He asks that you kindly answer them with your well informed  knowledge”

http://www.hart-brasilientexte.de/2011/09/14/brasiliens-befreiungstheologe-und-cia-experte-frei-betto-zu-den-versuchten-attentaten-auf-gaddafi-der-abschus-einer-italienischen-passagiermaschine-1980-offenbar-verwechselt-mit-dem-flugzeug-von-gad/

The young doctor was settled in the parlour where he tried to fill in the questionnaire. He handed it to the master in less than an hour.  The master took the paper to the prior and returned a quarter of an hour later:

“The prior recognises your vast knowledge and erudition. Your answers are brilliant. For this reason he asks that you return to the convent in a year’s time”.

The doctor showed great disappointment:

“Now if I answered all the questions correctly” he objected “ why return in a year? If I had not answered correctly, what would have happened?”

“You would have been accepted immediately and by next week you would already have joined the novices”

“So, why must I return in a year?”

“That is the time the prior considers adequate for you to unlearn useless knowledge”.

“Unlearn?” the doctor was surprised.

“Yes, unlearn. Entering the spiritual life is like going on a journey: the heavier the baggage, the slower the going. Yours holds too many substantially useless items”.

The doctor left promising to return in a year, which he did.

Just as there are schools and courses in which to learn, there should also be places which teach unlearning. How much important uselessness do we value in life! How many details drain our precious energy and voraciously take up our time! How many hours and days are lost with occupations which add nothing to our lives, on the contrary, they bore us and burden us with worries.

We must unlearn thinking that nature’s gifts are for our personal use, when our spendthrift ways cause scarcity for many. Unlearn to give value to a model for progress which does not necessarily bring collective happiness or to an economy where speculation exceeds production.

We must unlearn to look at the world through our navel, as though what is different must be eyed with suspicion and prejudice.

Unlearning is an art for those who propose to change their lives. Less baggage and more lightness, especially lightness of spirit on this life journey, is better and faster in order to reach our destination. We carry too many demands, hurts, envy and even hatred, as if all this rubbish only harms others and not us.

What delights us about children under five years of age is their incessant asking questions, their interest in what is new, their simplicity of spirit. This is what Jesus meant when he told Nicodemus that it was necessary to be born again without having to return to our mother’s womb and to become a child in order to enter the Kingdom of Heaven.

The doctor who aspired to be a novice proved that he was well informed but he could not tell the difference between culture and wisdom. He could list the most famous paintings in the world but had no notion as to what they meant or why the artist did this and not that. He knew all the maladies in his specialisation without having clear knowledge as to how to relate to the patient.

Humanity will have no promising future if it does not unlearn about provoking wars or considering poverty as the mere result of individual incapacity. It must unlearn about valuing what is superfluous as though it was necessary and that ostentation is a sign of success. Unlearn to waste time with what is unimportant and the dedicating of more time to the body than to the spirit.

The spiritual life is a continuous unlearning of attachments and ambitions, vanities and presumptions. Happiness only knows one home: the human heart. There are millions of drug addicts who shout at the top of their lungs that they have true consciousness and that happiness comes from an inner experience, a new state of consciousness. As they did not learn to embrace the way of the absolute, they followed the road to absurdity.

It is good to remember: in love we unlearn more than we learn.

*Frei Betto is a writer, author of “A arte de semear estrelas” (The art of sowing stars) (Rocco).

Neoliberalismo e cultura

 

Frei Betto

 

 O neoliberalismo não visa a destruir apenas as instâncias comunitárias criadas pela modernidade, como família, sindicato, movimentos sociais e Estado democrático. Seu projeto de atomização da sociedade reduz a pessoa à condição de indivíduo desconectado da conjuntura sócio-política-econômica na qual se insere, e o considera como mero consumidor. Estende-se, portanto, também à esfera cultural.

 Um dos avanços da modernidade foi, com o advento da democracia, reconhecer a pessoa como sujeito político. Este passou a ter, além de deveres, direitos. Dotado de consciência crítica, livrou-se da condição de servo cego e dócil às  ordens de seu senhor, consciente de que autoridade não é sinônimo de verdade, nem poder de razão.

 

 Agora, busca-se destituir a pessoa de sua condição de sujeito. O protótipo do cidadão neoliberal é o que se demite de qualquer pensamento crítico e, sobretudo, de participar de instâncias comunitárias. E para essa cultura da demissão voluntária contribui, de modo especial, a TV.

 

 Em si, a TV é poderoso instrumento de formação e informação. Mas pode facilmente ser convertido em mecanismo de deformação e desinformação, sobretudo se atrelada à máquina publicitária que rege o mercado. Assim, a própria TV torna-se um produto a ser consumido e, portanto,  centrado no aumento dos índices de audiência.

 

 Para isso,  recorre-se a todo tipo de apelação, desde que os telespectadores sintam-se hipnotizados pelas imagens. O problema é que a janela eletrônica está aberta para dentro do núcleo familiar. É ali que ela despeja a profusão de imagens e atinge indistintamente adultos e crianças, sem o menor escrúpulo quanto ao universo de valores da família.

 

 Se a TV transmitisse cultura – tudo aquilo que aprimora a nossa consciência e o nosso espírito -, ela seria o mais poderoso veículo de educação. É verdade, não deixa de fazê-lo, mas a regra geral não são os programas de densidade cultural, e sim o mero  entretenimento – distrai, diverte e, sobretudo, abre a caixa de Pandora de nossos desejos inconfessáveis. A imagem que “diz” o que não ousamos pronunciar.

 

 Ao superar o diálogo entre pais e filhos e impor-se como interlocutora hegemônica dentro do núcleo familiar, a TV altera as referências simbólicas fundamentais do psiquismo infantil. É pelo falar que uma geração transmite a outra crenças, valores, nomes próprios, mega-relatos, genealogias, ritos, relações sociais etc. Transmite a própria aptidão humana de uso da palavra, através do qual se tece a nossa subjetividade e a nossa identidade. É essa interação, propiciada pelo diálogo oral, cara a cara, que nos educa às relações de alteridade, faz-nos reconhecer o eu diante do Outro, bem como as múltiplas conexões que ligam um ao outro,  como emoções, imagens provocadas por gestos, expressões faciais carregadas de sentimentos etc.

 

 A fala ou o diálogo demarcam referências fundamentais ao nosso equilíbrio psíquico, como a identificação do tempo (agora) e do espaço (aqui), e dos limites do meu ser em relação aos demais. Se a fala reduz-se a uma enxurrada de imagens que visam a exacerbar os sentidos, as referências simbólicas da criança correm perigo. Ela tende à dificuldade de construir seu universo simbólico, não adquirindo sensos de temporalidade e  historicidade. Tudo se reduz ao “aqui e agora”, à simultaneidade. A própria tecnologia que abrange distâncias em tempo real – Internet, telefone celular etc. – favorece uma sensação de ubiqüidade: “eu não estou em nenhum lugar porque estou em todos”.

 

 Muitos professores se queixam de que os alunos não são tão atentos às aulas. Claro, o sonho deles seria poder mudar o professor de canal… Muitas crianças e jovens demonstram dificuldade de se expressar porque não sabem ouvir. Possuem raciocínio confuso, no qual a lógica derrapa frequentemente no aluvião de sentimentos contraditórios. Acreditam, sobretudo, que são inventores da roda e, portanto, pouco interessa o  patrimônio cultural das gerações anteriores (o financeiro sim, sem dúvida).

 

 Assim, a cultura perde refinamento e profundidade, confina-se aos simulacros de talk-show, onde cada um opina segundo sua reação imediata, sem reconhecimento da competência do Outro. No caso da escola, este Outro é o professor, visto não só como destituído de autoridade, mas sobretudo como quem abusa de seu poder e não admite que os alunos o tratem de igual para igual… Ora, já que o professor não “escuta”, então só há um meio de fazê-lo ouvir: a violência. Pois foram educados pela TV, onde não há o  exercício da argumentação paciente, da construção elucidativa, do  aprimoramento do senso crítico. É o perde ou ganha incessante, e quase sempre à base da coação.

 

 Assim, cai-se numa educação qualificada por Jean-Claude Michéa de “dissolução da lógica”. Deixa-se de distinguir o prioritário do secundário, de perceber o texto em seu contexto, de abranger o particular no pano de fundo do geral, para acatar passivamente as pressões de consumo que buscam transformar valores éticos em meros valores pecuniários, ou seja, tudo é mercadoria, e é o seu preço que imprime, a quem a possui, determinado valor social, ainda que destituído de caráter.

 

 Demite-se do ato de pensar, refletir, criticar e, sobretudo, participar do projeto de transformar a realidade. Tudo passa a uma questão de conveniência, gosto pessoal, simpatia. Também são considerados comercializáveis a biodiversidade, a defesa do meio ambiente, a responsabilidade social das empresas, o genoma, os órgãos arrancados de crianças etc.

 

 É o apogeu do capitalismo total, capaz de mercantilizar até mesmo o nosso imaginário.

Englisch:

Neo-liberalism™s isn™t merely the destruction of communitarian patterns created by modernity such as the family, unions, social movements and the democratic State. Its project to disintegrate society reduces the person to the condition of an individual disconnected from the socio-political-economic conjuncture in which he/she is inserted and considers him/her as a mere consumer. This extends into the cultural sphere as well.

With the advent of democracy one of modernity’s achievements was the recognition of the person as a political subject who had rights as well as duties. Gifted with a critical conscience, he/she was freed from the condition of a blind slave submissive to the orders of his/her master and aware that authority is not synonymous with truth nor is power synonymous with reason.
Nowadays the aim is to deprive the person of his/her condition as subject. The prototype of a neo-liberal citizen is someone who is voluntarily deprived of all critical thought and, above all, of participating in community affairs. Television in particular contributes towards this culture of voluntary deprivation.
TV is itself a powerful instrument of development and information which can easily be turned into a mechanism of deformation and misinformation especially if it is linked to the publicity machine which rules the market. Thus TV itself becomes a consumer product centred on increasing its ratings.
Once viewers are hypnotised by the images, all manner of appeal is used. The problem is that the electronic window opens up within the family circle. It is there that is spreads its profusion of images and affects adults and children indiscriminately and has no scruples regarding family values.
If TV were to broadcast culture – that which refines our conscience and our spirit – it would be the most powerful vehicle for education. It is true that it does this but deeply cultural programmes are not the rule, they tend to be mere entertainment which distracts, amuses and above all opens the Pandora’s Box of our secret desires. It “says” what we dare not mention.
Replacing the dialogue between parents and children and imposing itself as the hegemonic voice within the family unit, TV alters the symbolic and fundamental references of a child’s psyche. It is through speech that one generation passes on beliefs, values, names, outstanding events, genealogy, rites, social relations etc. to another. It passes on the human ability to use the word in which our subjectivity and our identity are woven. It is this interaction, made possible through oral face to face dialogue that prepares us for varied relations, makes us recognise the I in the presence of the other and the many connections which bind one with another – images produced through gestures, facial expressions laden with feelings etc.
Speech or dialogue define fundamental references in our psychic balance such as the identification of time (now) and of space (here) and of the limits of my being in relation to others. If speech is reduced to a torrent of images which aims at exacerbating the senses, the symbolic references of the child are in danger. He/she tends to have difficulty constructing his/her symbolic world and does not acquire a temporal and historic sense. All is reduced to the “here and now” – to simultaneity. The very technology which embraces distances in real time such as the internet, mobile phones etc., favours a sense of ubiquity: “I am nowhere for I am everywhere”.
Many school teachers complain that students do not pay attention in class. Of course their dream is to switch teachers by switching channels…   Many children and youths have difficulty in expressing themselves because they don’t know how to listen. Their reasoning is confused and logic frequently slides in the flood of contradictory feelings. They believe, above all, that they invented the wheel and therefore are not too interested in the cultural patrimony of past generations (but are interested in the financial one, of course).
In this way, culture loses refinement and depth and is reduced to the representation of talk shows where each person gives an opinion according to their immediate reaction without acknowledging the competence of the Other. In the case of schools this Other is the teacher, not only seen as lacking in authority, but especially as one who abuses of his/her power and will not permit the students to treat him or her as an equal… Actually when the teacher doesn’t “listen” there is only one way to be heard: through violence. The teachers were educated by the TV where there is no exercising of patient discussion, of elucidative construction, of the perfecting of critical sense.  It is a constant situation of win or lose and practically always on the basis of coercion.
The result is an education described by Jean-Claude Michea as the “dissolution of logic”. Priorities are no longer set apart from what is secondary, a text is not seen in its context, what is private is no longer perceived within the backdrop of the ordinary all in order to obey passively the pressures of consumerism which seek to transform ethical values into mere economic values, in other words, all is merchandise and it is only its price which gives a determined social value to those who own it even when they may be lacking in character.
People remove themselves from thinking, reflecting, critiquing and, above all, from participating in the project for the transformation of reality. Everything becomes a matter of convenience, personal taste and fancy. Biodiversity, the defense of the environment, the social responsibility of business, genome and children™s organs removed for transplants, etc. are all commercialized.

This is the peak of total capitalism, capable of even merchandising our imagination.

Bolsa Família é eleitoreiro
Um dos idealizadores do programa Fome Zero, Frei Betto não poupa palavras duras ao Bolsa Família, principal vitrine do presidente Lula.

“Lamentavelmente o Fome Zero foi criado e destruído pelo próprio governo Lula. O Fome Zero tinha um caráter emancipatório, previa que cada família que nele ingressasse dentro de dois anos estaria em condições de produzir a própria renda”, recorda.

Frei Betto acusa “um grupo no Planalto”, sem dar nomes, de acabar com o Fome Zero e aumentar o Bolsa Família pensando na permanência no poder.

“Esse grupo descobriu que não era interessante manter o Fome Zero e aí maquiou o Bolsa Família, criado pelo governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB), que mantém as famílias na dependência permanente ao governo e isso em termos de dividendos significa votos”, cutuca.

Sobre o pré-acordo já firmado entre o PT e o PMDB visando as eleições do ano que vem, Frei Betto, que nunca foi filiado a partido político, mais uma vez, atira.

“Eu lamento. Alguém está equivocado nessa história. Lamento que o PT tendo condições de fazer alianças com os movimentos sociais, com a sociedade civil prefira um partido que só tem um objetivo: é governo, sou a favor. Esse é o principio básico do PMDB, com raríssimas exceções”. (Landesmedien)

http://www.hart-brasilientexte.de/2010/01/03/maria-clara-luchetti-bingemer-dekanin-der-theologischen-fakultat-der-katholischen-universitat-von-rio-de-janeiro-gesichter-brasiliens/

BRASILIEN

Gauck: Von Brasilien lernen

Brasilien bewegt den Bundespräsidenten: Während seines Besuchs zeigte sich Joachim Gauck beeindruckt von der Aufbruchstimmung im Land. Deutschland könne von dem Mut zu Veränderungen lernen. Regierungssender Deutsche Welle 2013

Gauck sieht Kolumbien und Brasilien “auf gutem Wege”/Deutschlandradio Kultur

 

Dieser Beitrag wurde am Mittwoch, 28. September 2011 um 02:46 Uhr veröffentlicht und wurde unter der Kategorie Kultur, Politik abgelegt. Du kannst die Kommentare zu diesen Eintrag durch den RSS-Feed verfolgen.

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