Klaus Hart Brasilientexte

Aktuelle Berichte aus Brasilien – Politik, Kultur und Naturschutz

Brasilienexperte Wolfgang Krönner, Teil 3


6.14 Conclusions of the empiric researchConclusion drawing refers to the process of deciding what findings mean, notingthemes, regularities, patterns, and explanations. Interviewers draw conclusionsthroughout the entire data collection process, but eventually this process becomes

more explicit at the point when the final conclusion is drawn.

As researchers try toexplain what the data mean, they should continually examine their findings forplausibility, reliability and validity, and conclusions must also be verified (see Mayring2002, p. 141).The author` s proposition of the empiric research, as formulated in chapter 6.2, was:”Globalization has both effects on local communities: positive and negative ones.Localization is inseparably connected with the impact of global effects and is aninstrument of response and counterweight to globalization.Even though not all spheres of the community could be included in the empiricresearch, the collected data indicate many revealing aspects about the effects ofglobalization and localization on Prainha do Canto Verde. The findings verify theproposition of the author, that globalization is a double-edged sword for the localresidents of the fishing village. They also verify the thesis, that localization isconnected with the impact of globalization. The interviewees agreed on the opinionthat global processes and changes, like international capital flows, decisions ofdevelopment banks and institutions, industrial over-fishing, real estate speculation,and mass tourism, need a strong and united defence and response by the affectedcommunities at the global, regional, and local level.They are convinced that without their resistance, their firm organization and thesupport from individuals, NGOs and other groups they would have not survived theconflict with the real estate speculator or rather the tourism industry. They emphasizethat only their cultural basis as weather-proofed fishermen, with a well organized localassociation, enables and empowers them to face the threatening impact ofglobalization with autonomous actions, strong organizations and enduring resistanceat the local level. The phrase “we knew tourism was going to arrive, whether wewanted it or not. So we decided to take control, rather than let tourism take control ofus” (interview no. 1, 69-72) illustrates the residents` position towards this process oflocalization.Another finding: not a single one of the interviewed residents is absolutely againstglobalization. But there are certain aspects in globalization that are seen as threats by35the natives, like the increasing power of multinational fishing and tourism companiesand the concentration of extreme wealth in the hand of very few individuals. As oneinterviewee pointed out: ”An alliance of real estate agents, foreign investors, entrepreneurs,state and local politicians rules the world without respecting our fundamentalrights, our land, our culture, and the future of us – the local residents(interview no. 2, 48-53). The lack of democratically controlled and socially justdevelopment at local and regional level is the reason for them to demand moredemocratic governance and more control of international financial transactions,infrastructure and investment planning by the responsible politicians and institutions.A revealing statement came from one interviewee, who pointed out in his answerabout globalization and its effects, that ”the great majority of our residents doesn`tlose any sleep over globalization, but they are getting interested in globalization,without realising it. They are curios about Internet and computers that their childrentalk about, interested in news about fishery around the world, tsunamis andhurricanes (interview no. 7, 47-52). The local residents seem to recognize the positiveaspects of globalization and they are not anti-globalists. Their plans for the village` sfuture are orientated by digital inclusion, use of computers for their aims and the newpossibilities offered by a world which is getting more interconnected and smaller.Positive signs of globalization are seen by many residents in opportunities toexchange ideas and experiences with other fishing-communities and the easiercreation of international networks of like-minded people, who join and fight togetherfor their aims. They are welcoming the better access to information, to buildarguments for change, cooperate with NGOs and like-minded members of movementsaround the world. The possibility of a direct and fast communication with interestedconsumers in Brazil and abroad, about issues like healthy food, sustainable fisheriesand ecological concepts is seen by them as a weapon against the globally actingfishing industry. The growing demand for quality seafood from artisanal fishery andthe access to internal and external markets is also seen as growing source of newopportunities by the fishing population. The exchange of new technologies, bestpractices and ideas to improve quality of life between small resource communities isgrowing through worldwide networks.Residents see also a positive influence in the presence of tourists, who make positivecontributions to the community` s development with their different attitudes,opinions, discussions, and experiences from their backgrounds. The motivation to36learn and speak a foreign language is increasing through contacts with foreigners “especially English and German.The elevation of the local educational level is a demand of many residents, theconsciousness and the importance of learning languages seem to increase and bettersecondary education facilities are seen furthermore as goal for improvements in theplanning for the future of the children.The local population is positive about having a better and easier access to the mediaand marketing platforms with improving technological facilities (Internet) and the useof computers. An increasing income generation from art, handicraft, social andenvironmental services, and organic agriculture is expected by some of them.The findings of the e-mail interviews (triangulation) also verify the proposition of theempiric research. The global processes and its effects are seen in similar way by theother coastal residents. Not surprisingly some of their opinions are in contrast to theones of the other group, but they are explainable with the significant local differencesthat exist in the coastal region.7 Glocalization: localization in a globalized worldWith the emergence of the hybrid of globalization and localization ´glocalization´ inthe global framework we can see the effects of a new phenomenon. The social andcultural sciences connect globalization to a whole spectrum of processes and effects.The various theses are situated between the poles of ´homogenization´ and´hybridization´. Whereas the first of these visions claims that global culture ismodelling itself after US-American or Western standards, the second claims that,increasingly, the local alternatives of developing countries are gaining relevance. TheGlocal Forum outlines the principles of glocalization as intended ”to point a newperspective characterized by a greater balance between the global and the localdimensions in a state of world affairs affected by a number of severe problems (war,poverty and inequalities in the first place), but also marked by the emergence ofcertain positive signs. (¦) The goal, (¦) is to establish a link between the benefits of theglobal dimension “ in terms of technology, information and economics “ and localrealities, while, at the same time, establishing a bottom-up system for the governance37of globalization, based on a greater equality in the distribution of the planet`sresources and on authentic social and cultural rebirth of disadvantaged populations(The Glocal Forum, CERFE, World Bank Institute 2003, p. 1; emphasises in the original).Providing local communities with important potentials and resources, as tourism forexample, needs to be integrated in a systematic way into strategies for sustainableeconomic, environmental and social development. Integrated this way tourism ”canboost the preservation and transmission of cultural traditions and provide increasedresources for protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage resources(The Glocal Forum et al. 2003, p. 65; emphasis in the original). The glocal approach oftourism as described by the Glocal Forum, stressing the ”connection of globalresources with local actors and their networks, which ”offers a unique perspective forlocal leadership and control over tourism development policies and to orient them in asustainable, peace-oriented, culturally-sensitive direction (ibid., p. 65; emphasis in theoriginal) is probably outlining the road to the future of local communities in times ofglobalization.8 RésuméAs pointed out in the introduction, this study has examined the complex relation-shipbetween globalization and localization and its effects on a fishing village. Globalizationis a highly contested term and its frequent usage has obscured a lack of consensuswith regard to what it entails, how it works and how it is managed. The termglobalization is often used inconsistently, at times to describe trends, at other times toexplain them. Globalization, as the author sees it, signifies a worldwide process ofqualitative changes in economic and political structures, trends, and processes ontrans-national and international scales.Localization is concerned with the application of local policies, strategies, and activetiesthat are inter-linked with the processes of globalization. As localization andglobalization processes constitute and feed each other, it is important to find a newperspective that offers a greater balance between the global and the local level.38Describing the historical processes of the colonization of Brazil in the first chapter, theauthor focused on a period that entertains a close relationship with today`s globalizingworld. The worldwide phenomena of hybridization and rejection thus seem closelylinked to the harbingers of economic globalization that began in the second half of the16th century, which we can view as the ”Iberian century, just as our own has becomethe ”American century. When looking at the effects of globalization on the fishingvillage we are confronted with a number of phenomena that remind the authorsomehow of the Portuguese invasion at the coast of Ceará in the 1500s. Today globalinvestors, predominantly from European countries, buy up coastal properties, investingtheir capital in tourist resorts and other businesses. They are welcomed by the stategovernment and find excellent fiscal and financial conditions for their businesses, butthey act mostly regardless of the suspicious coastal residents, who have to face thebitter consequences, like loss of their land, emigration, or environmental pollutions.Despite of the positive global effects for emerging countries, as claimed by cheerfulproponents of globalization, Brazil still remains the country with the greatest socialinequality worldwide.Returning to the era of globalization “ the processes of it occur in the historical, social,political, economic, and cultural dimensions and contexts. The impact of globalizationhas not only increased the flows of capital, trade, information, and people. Thechanges and effects of globalization have also created economic, political,environmental, cultural, and social disparities in developing countries that areunacceptable and politically unsustainable.Our challenge is to think through the relationships between the global and the local byobserving how forces of globalization influence and structure local situations. But oneshould also see how local forces mediate the global configurations. In Prainha we canobserve the tourism industry, expanding their worldwide activities by buying stretchesof land, supported by ruthless real estate companies “ or fishing companies, servingthe international consumer market with lobsters and snappers from Ceará. Both areproducing wealth for the investors and at the same time harmful effects for the nativepopulation. Illegal land grabs, mass tourism and over-fishing are menacing theexistence and the livelihood of the native population. These polarization processes areresponded at the local level by the residents of the fishing village, who are unwilling toaccept their complete absorption into the neo-liberal market system. Looking at the39conclusions, driven by the inhabitants of Prainha about the effects of globalization andlocalization, the author agrees with Milanovic (2003), that we need a more accurateand realistic reading of globalization and, in many respects, different policies from theones suggested by the globalization cheerleaders. These want to make us believe thatglobalization is regarded as a benign and almost automatic force. Once certainpreconditions are set in place, like opening up the borders, attract foreign investmentsand reducing tariff rates, will lead developing countries to a state of economic growthand prosperity. The author supposes that this one-sided view of globalization is basedon a one serious methodical error: a systematic ignorance of the double-sided natureof globalization, and that means a systematic ignorance of its malignant side.The author agrees with Stiglitz (2003) that closer integration of economies, countriesand people can be a force for good, but also believes that the way, globalization hasbeen managed in Northeast Brazil, needs to be radically rethought.But also according to Stiglitz (2005) the benignant side of globalization has had alsoenormous impacts on political processes throughout the world, such as democracy,women`s- and human rights standards, communication facilities like the Internet andothers.The interviews with the locals have revealed many interesting aspects about theeffects of globalization and localization on PCV. The findings verify the author`s propositionthat globalization is a double-edged sword. The residents recognize the positiveimpacts of globalization, as in the paragraph above-mentioned, and they don` t worryabout globalization generally – but they have also learned, that localization is anempowering counterweight to globalization. The residents showed that developmentis the outcome of many complex actions originating from decision-making at variouslevels to control over land and project implementation. It is almost always possible butnever automatic, because it depends on space-bound assets, such as knowledge,organizational settings, and various natural, social, and human resources. Theprosperity of a single community is a result of the systematic enhancement of theseassets.After creating the ”residents association and the ”cooperative of fishermen the localresidents received various inputs and involvements from individuals and groupssupporting their development process. With the arrival of René Schärer in thecommunity, they had the opportunity to develop a small project that was directed to40more independence of the fish and lobster intermediaries. The changes by means ofthis project had an impressing positive effect on the residents. They discovered thatthe dynamics of community-based development projects had multiple effects, like:- more independence from intermediaries and outdated market structures;- positive experience and example of community organization;- confirmation that participation processes can work;- localization is a counterweight to regional or global challenges.Today the community invests only in projects that are based on the economically andecologically sustainable model, as do many other native grassroots organizations inthe South. They plead for a more democratic and glocal development strategy thatgives the local residents support and voice for their empowerment, participation anddecision making. The processes of community development that we can observe inPCV show the challenges and the efforts of natives in a specific cultural context tocome to terms with the global effects that affect and shape their lives. Communitydevelopment in PCV was connected from the very beginning with an epic of localizedstruggle – the land grab and the fight for their land tenure, the hard conditions ofjangada-fishing, and the lack of support from governments. When the local residentsrealized these threats, they started to fight back and to organize themselves, then toseek advice and support from organizations and groups “ instead of leaving their landwithout any resistance. The author sees this situation as the turning point for thecommunity of Prainha. Their response to the threats was a model of autonomouscommunity development, which is characterized by diversity and self-sufficiency,economic and ecological sustainability, popular participation (in planning and implementation),and local control over the available resources.Tourism in developing countries is also an ambiguous theme and is dependent andintricately tied to other areas of local economies, as we can observe in Prainha, such asfishing, agriculture, land, and labour. It is not possible to analyse tourism` s effects onlocal communities and its role in globalization without also looking at these otherareas. According to Friedman, tourism can play an important role in creating incentivesfor locals to maintain the character and tradition of a place. Contacts between people,their values, ideas and ways of life have been growing and deepening inunprecedented ways with the onset of globalisation. But expanding cultural freedom41also presents new challenges and dilemmas. For many people in the developingcountries it is disquieting. Many fear that globalization means a loss of their valuesand ways of life “ a threat to local identity. But in a complex, globalized world there isno easy formula to solve the problems. An extreme reaction would be to shut outforeign influences. But this seems impossible, so we need different strategies to copewith them. The local residents` s approach is it to channel and control tourismactivities at the local level and develop only small and sustainable projects. Whilecultural preservation, zoning laws and environmental legislation in Brazil are stillweak, or easily corrupted, the residents of Prainha have implemented local filters, likethe sustainable tourism project, small-scale fishery, and a limited developmentprogram, to respond adequately to the menacing global challenges. Here fits astatement of the World Commission on the Social Dimensions of Globalization (2004):”There can be no successful globalization without a successful localization.As claimed by the author at the beginning of this chapter, it is important to find anew perspective that offers a greater balance between the global and the local level.This new perspective we find in the glocal approach that stresses the integration of thelocal communities as crucial factor “ as for example in tourism. The potential oftourism is to be realized in development efforts, it is important that awareness israised on the need to empower local communities to be at the center of the tourismdevelopment process. Beside their participation it avoids the exploitation and the riskof leakage of tourism`s benefits from the community.The principles of glocalization, as pointed out in chapter 7, and the report of theWorld Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization show us critical butpositive perspectives for a greater balance between the global and the localdimensions. The author goes along with these ideas of establishing a bottom-upsystem for the governance of globalization, based on more autonomy for developingcountries with fair rules of trade and a greater equality in the distribution of resources,respect for human rights, the rule of law and social equity. The fact that people livelocally within nations has to be reflected. In this sense the response to globalizationbegins at the local level. For a fair globalization we have to create opportunities for allcitizens. We need a more effective global political governance based on a democraticsystem and a State that provides public goods and social protection, promoteseducation, and other social services. A civil global society, empowered by freedom of42expression and association is part of this new vision that voices the diversity of viewsand interests in the world.Finally the author`s proposals for an ethically acceptable and politically sustainablefuture call for a more democratic participation of people in the making of global andlocal policies, that affect them directly and indirectly. Governments, parliaments,business companies, civil society and international organizations have to integratetheir efforts and assume their common responsibility to promote a fair, socially just,environmentally sound, and sustainable global community.

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